Day 1 :
Humboldt State University, USA
Time : 10:00-10:35
Dr. Han-Sup Han’s current research efforts focus on the production of quality feedstocks and development of innovative biomass feedstock logistics systems. Recently, Dr. Han, along with 13 Co-PIs (Principal Investigators) and research partners, has received a $5.88 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct biomass research on the utilization of forest residues for production of bioenergy and biobased products. The research collaboration effort integrates three major tasks of 1) production of quality feedstock, 2) development of mobile biomass conversion technologies, and 3) economic/environmental analysis, as explained in the research project web site at www.wastetowisdom.com.
Forest residues increases forest fire hazards and impede the forest management activities such as tree planting and thinning operations. Logging residues are commonly burned on site however; open burning is not only costly and risky, but also causes problems including air emissions and damage to the soil due to the hot fires. In addition to logging residues, many small-diameter trees that are generated from fuel-reduction thinning activities, dead/dying trees due to insects/diseases and due to droughts need to be disposed. Biomass energy has been well served as a way of disposing forest residues. The production of energy by utilizing these forest residues create many other benefits which includes enhancing environmental protection, reducing fire hazards, creating local jobs with business opportunities, and facilitating forest management activities. In the US, there were an estimated 97 million dry tons of woody biomass for energy that could be sustainably available at a price of 60$ per dry ton. Low market values (<50 $/bone dry ton) for the woody biomass prevents the activity of forest management for the energy production in the western US. More recently there have been many federal- and state-level policies and regulations enacted to encourage the use of renewable energy including biomass, and with these changed market conditions and favorable policy support, biomass energy may be a desirable solution to help manage the forest residue disposal issues. This presentation illustrates the issues that forest residues create in the Western US and explains the new efforts that have been made to cost-effectively utilize (i.e. dispose of) these residues for energy production.
Swedish center for applied sociology AB, Sweden
Time : 10:35-11:10
Bo G Eriksson retired from the University of Gothenburg. He has his Ph. D. in Sociology from the University of Gothenburg where he has held a position as lecturer and taught at several university departments. His main research has been as a member of the interdisciplinary team H-70 studying ageing longitudinally. By this paper he returns to an interest developed during his high school years. rn
The speech gives an simple review of the possibilities of using waste bio-mass for agroforestry in arid and semi-arid areas. In these areas there are to two key factors: water and soil carbon content. Atmosphere humidity is a valuable source of water which puts less stress on groundwater and surface water assets. As recently mentioned in Nature organic fibre could be used to enrich the soil carbon content. Such agricultural methods have successfully been practised in the Sahel area using locally produced agricultural waste and leaves from trees.rnLarge quantities of organic fibre waste are presently burned in in Europe. As an alternative to burning there are three benefits of using organic fibres to enhance soil carbon content in deserts. 1 Burning organic carbon releases CO2 to the atmosphere while placing it as a soil layer it preserves the carbon in the ground, 2 The new vegetation in earlier barren land collects CO2 from the air. 3 The vegetation and the layer of soil with a higher carbon content also collect and preserve more water from dew fall and mist. rnAs an example organic textile waste can be of special interest as the recycling processes are underdeveloped in Europe and. At least 5% of the fibres are so worn that they do not qualify for other recycling processes. There are of course lots of difficulties to solve. Agroforestry in these areas would also contribute to living conditions of populations, but also to conflicts with current activities in the areas.rn