Day 1 :
Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada
Time : 10:30-11:05
Robert Helleur is a Honorary Research Professor of Chemistry at Memorial University. He has been very active in the field of analytical pyrolysis since 1986 in the area of thermochemolytic analysis of chemical markers/ profiling of carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, lipids and plant stressors in biomass and soils. A shift in research focus occurred in 2010 towards applied pyrolysis of forestry residues and municipal wastes with research funds from NSERC, NCE (BioFuelNet), and CFSI/Forestry. Pyrolysis experiments are conducted at lab- and pilot-scale and comprehensive analysis for the biochar and bio-oil products undertaken using various feedstock compositions. Biochars has been used in greenhouse studies for plant growth studies while crude bio-oils have been studied for their chemical stability and extraction of useful chemicals. Dr. Helleur has supervised over 60 graduate students and has published over 75 peer-reviewed research articles. He has been active member in a number of pyrolysis workshops and international conferences.
Biorefining is defined as the sustainable processing of biomass into marketable products and fuel. In the Canadian Maritimes waste biomass can be readily obtained from forestry and fishery sectors and municipalities (solid wastes). The integrated forest biorefinery consists of the addition of biorefining units to pulp and paper mills and local sawmills while maintaining the manufacturing of their core product. The biorefinery would provide a source of sustainable fuels and chemicals while increasing the value from wood residues and help diversify the sector. Processing woody biomass into fuels is the first step in biorefining, similar to the atmospheric distillation unit at an oil refinery or inlet separator at a gas plant. Over the last 4 years Memorial has partnered with BioFuelNet Canada, CSFI/DNR and Abritech (Quebec) in developing a comprehensive thermochemical research facility which includes a pilot scale fast pyrolysis unit (450-480oC;no O2). Pyrolysis converts biomass into liquid biofuel, biochar and useful chemical products. Given the average residues of a medium sawmill i.e., 3,500 tonnes/yr and the potential for other feedstocks (fishery) a number of integrated pathways are being considered (Figure 1). The bio-oil has the potential for a replacement or blend with heating oil for the sawmill and region. Depending on scale of the system there are opportunities to partner with other users such as pulp and Paper mills. The biochar product has a number of local markets including soil amendment and as an effective absorbent in the mining and oil and gas industry. Other integrated processes under development are torrefaction (300 oC; no O2), a pre-treatment leading to higher quality products.
Papari et al., Indust. Eng. Chem. Res., 56, 2017.
Whyte et al., Fuel processing Tech., 140, 2015.
Kan et al., RSER, 57, 2016.
Ferraro et al., Materials Sci. Eng. C, 33, 2013.
Zhang et al., Energy Conversion Management, 51, 2010.
Networking and Refreshments Break 11:05-11:25 @ Breakout Areas
Brunel University, London
Time : 11:25-12:00
Dr Hussam Jouhara worked in academia and the industry, Hussam has unique expertise in working on applied heat exchangers and energy-related research activities with direct support from research councils and various UK and international industrial partners. He has extensive expertise in designing and manufacturing various types of heat exchangers, including heat pipes and heat pipe-based heat exchangers for low, medium and high temperature applications. His work in the field of heat pipe based heat exchangers resulted in novel designs for recouperators, steam generators & condensers and flat heat pipes. His latest invention relates to a new Waste to Energy system that converts municipal waste to fuel that can be used to heat our homes.
Statement of the Problem: Waste management is one of the most crucial challenges that developed countries are currently facing. The environmental, economic and social effects of current waste treatments prove their inefficiency. Currently, domestic waste must be transported and disposed of in landfills or be burned in mass incinerators. Pyrolysis is a thermal treatment designed to recover energy, which can also contribute to reduce the biodegradable waste volume of landfills.
However, current pyrolysis systems cannot cope efficiently enough with the changing heat transfer from the heated walls to the materials and they require the development of very high temperatures on the chamber walls to overcome the thermal resistance within the reactor. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: An innovative pyrolysis system is introduced. The heat pipe based waste treatment for the Home Energy Recovery Unit (HERU) does not involve any pre-treatment of the waste stream. The HERU achieves high uniformity of the heat distribution within the chamber and high energy recovery. After the waste treatment the waste heat from the pyrolysis process is used to warm up water to cover domestic hot water demands. Findings: The COP of the HERU system can reach up to 9.4, while the carbon footprint of the unit was between 0.0782 to 0.3873 kgCO2e per kg of treated waste. Conclusion & Significance: The HERU provides a green solution to the disposal of waste streams and at the same time a sustainable, renewable solution to power generation. Its implementation could reduce greenhouse gas emissions, diminish the biodegradable content of residual waste sent to landfill, generate fuels and help the government to achieve low emission levels.
1. Sayegh M., Danielewicz J., Nannou T., Miniewicz M., Jadwiszczak P., Piekarska K., Jouhara H. (2017) Trends of European research and development in district heating technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68: 1183-1192.
2. Ramos J., Chong A., Jouhara H. (2016) Experimental and numerical investigation of a cross flow air-to-water heat pipe- based heat exchanger used in waste heat recovery. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 102: 1267-1281.
3. Jouhara H., Fadhl B., Wrobel L. (2016) Three-dimensional CFD simulation of geyser boiling in a two-phase closed thermosyphon. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 41: 16463-16476.
4. Jouhara H., Milko J., Danielewicz J., Sayegh M., zulgowska- Zgrzywa M., Ramos J., S.P. Lester S. (2016) The performance of a novel flat heat pipe based thermal and PV/T (photovoltaic and thermal systems) solar collector that can be used as an energy - active building envelope material. Energy 108:148-154.
5. Danielewicz J., Śniechowska B., Sayegh M., Fidorów N., Jouhara H. (2016) Three-dimensional numerical model of heat losses from district heating network pre-insulated pipes buried in the ground. Energy 108: 172-184.
6. Jouhara H., Szulgowska-Zgrzywa M., Sayegh M., Milko J., Danielewicz J., Nannou T., Lester S. (2016) The performance of a heat pipe based solar PV/T roof collector and its potential contribution in district heating applications. Energy
7. Amini A., Miller J., Jouhara H. (2016) An investigation into the use of the heat pipe technology in thermal energy storage heat exchangers. Energy
- Biomass Conversion Methods | Biomass Applications | Production of Biofuels
Location: Bleriot 1
Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico
Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland
Bill Powell a retired chartered engineer convinced of the potential of biomass to supply huge quantities of fuel gas and provide a very substantial contribution to the energy needs of the United Kingdom. He have advised both Chris Huhne and Ed Davey who served as energy ministers in the coalition government. He have addressed several conferences such as the World Hydrogen Technology Convention (WHTC) 2011 in Glasgow, and several specialist conferences such as those hosted by the IET. He cooperate with H2-Patent in Germany.
Thermal gasification can convert biomass to carbon neutral, or even carbon negative fuel gases, much more quickly and efficiently than anaerobic digestion. Applications include off-grid electricity generation, supply to the gas grid, and improved cooking stoves.
Such stoves use far less fuel and are far healthier than cooking over a three stone fire. Fuel can be agricultural waste instead of wood from forests. Biochar can be produced as a by product and used to restore soils depleted of carbon. There has been huge take up in China. Take up of such $10 stoves in Uganda is increasing from a low base at 50% p.a. The principles of operation are similar to larger gasifiers.
Instead of cooking, this pyrolysis gas can be used to generate electricity for a minigrid to provide lighting, phone charging and television after sunset. Other uses include pumping water or grinding corn in rural villages. The gas has to be cleaned to prevent contamination from tar causing frequent servicing. These gasifiers are best established in India but also used in Europe where there is waste woody biomass. They range up to about 500kW electrical capacity.
Engineers with experience of coal gasification propose biomass gasifiers that operate under pressure and use oxygen instead of air delivering over 50 MW (gas) to feed into the neighbouring gas grid. The pyrolysis stage described above is integrated with a higher temperature ‘steam reforming stage’ producing ‘syngas’ which is then converted into hydrogen or methane. Overall efficiencies of over 80% are forecast (hydrogen).
It is estimated that in this way UK biomass could satisfy 33% of current energy needs, but as for renewable electricity, incentives are needed. These in turn require a wider appreciation of the importance of ‘green’ fuel gas.
1 Wilson K Make your own biochar stove
2 Roth C Micro-gasification: cooking with dry biomass. Published by GIZ GmbH
3 Tetzlaff (2011) K-H Wasserstoff fuer alle
4 Day, Williams & Hodrien (2013) Low carbon gas from mixed waste, biomass and coal: a low cost route to CCS. Carbon Capture Journal
5 Buchholz, Da Silva & J Furtado (2012) Electricity from wood-fired gasification in Uganda - a 250 and 10kW case study. IEEE Xplore
Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico
Title: Convenient product distribution for a lignocellulosic biorefinery: optimization through sustainable indexes
Time : 12:30-13:00
Lorena Pedraza is a full-time professor at Universidad Iberoamericana’s Department of Engineering and Chemical Science. Her areas of expertise include fermentation technology, enzymatic catalysis, bioreactors and bioprocesses design. Her current research focuses on the application of biomass in bio-refineries and some examples of those current works include the production of xylitol, lactic acid, and ethanol from corn cob and municipal solid waste. Additionally, along with a multidisciplinary group from Universidad Iberoamericana, Mrs Pedraza is performing an analysis of the economic and sustainability aspects of the bio-refineries through modelling and process optimization. As part of her professional background, Mrs Pedraza was part of a research and development firm where she was in charge of escalating the production of an enzymatic biocatalyst. She is also a member of the Mexican Biotechnology and Bioengineering Society, the Bioenergy Thematic Network, and the Mexican Bioenergy Network.
Lignocellulosic biomass can be employed to generate diverse chemicals, even though it has been mainly used as fuel. In Mexico, the main source of lignocellulosic materials are agricultural wastes, for example, residues obtained from corn, which is the main agricultural product in the country. Although corn stover is employed as animal feed and corn cob as fuel in rural communities, both residues are underused, which boosts their accumulation as wastes. It is estimated that 4 million tons of corn cob were generated in
2016. Such residue was proposed as raw material in a biorefinery for production of bioethanol, enhancing its applications and decreasing pollution derived from its accumulation. Nevertheless, the preliminary techno- economic analysis showed that the project was not feasible; therefore, generating diverse chemicals like lactic acid, succinic acid, xylitol and lignosulfonates, was considered. These products were selected according to their demand in the country. A multi objective optimization approach was employed to find an optimal product distribution for the biorefinery shown in Figure 1 that cope with economic (EPI), environmental (RSEI) and safety (SI) indexes. Through this strategy, an efficient solution with an EPI of 0.16 is achieved, generating an annual utility of 70 kUSD when xylitol and bioethanol production are favored over succinic acid and lactic acid. This tool can be applied with different feedstocks and products in a biorefinery scheme, with kinetic and yield data for corresponding processes.
1. K. Fredga, K. Mäler (2010) Life Cycle Analyses and Resource
Assessments. Ambio. 39:36‐41.
2. L. Pedraza, A. Flores, H. Toribio, R. Quintero R, S. Le Borgne, C.
Moss‐Acosta, A. Martinez (2016) Sequential Thermochemical Hydrolysis of Corncobs and Enzymatic Saccharification of the Whole Slurry Followed by Fermentation of Solubilized Sugars to Ethanol with the Ethanologenic Strain Escherichia coli MS04
BioEnergy Res. 9:1046‐1052.
3. G. J. Ruiz‐Mercado, R. L. Smith, M. A. Gonzalez (2012) Sustainability indicators for chemical processes: I. Taxonomy. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 51:2309‐2328
4. S Mussatto, J. Moncada, I Roberto, C Cardona (2013) Techno‐ economic analysis for brewer’s spent grains use on a biorefinery concept: The Brazilian case. Bioresource Technology. 148:302‐310.
5. Q Li, D Wang, Y Wu, W Li, Y Zhang, J Xing, Z Su (2011) One step recovery of succinic acid from fermentation broths by crystallization. Separation and Purification Technology. 72(3):294‐
Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland
Title: Strength properties of pellets with addition of calcium carbonate obtained in pressure agglomeration process
Time : 13:00-13:30
Magdalena Dabrowska is a Doctor in Agricultural Engineering. She is a researcher at position of Assistant at the Faculty of Production Engineering, Department of Agricultural and Forest Engineering at Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW. Her main interests are renewable energy sources, especially pressure agglomeration of biomass, properties of biomass, energy plants, wastes from agriculture and industry, farm machinery. She is an author or co-author of 15 research papers in peer-reviewed journals, 14 conferences materials, co-executive in 4 research projects and in 1 EU project.
The scientific aim of this study was to gain a new knowledge and explain the impact of applying the addition of calcium carbonate to the biomass of different moisture content on selected evaluation measures of the produced pellets. The research material from three energy plant species: Miscanthus giganteus, Jerusalem artichoke and Spartina pectinata was characterized by using standard testing methods. The main research was carried out on the special stand with heating head and cylindrical opened chamber with 8 mm diameter with controlled temperature. The effect of 5, 10 and 15% addition of calcium carbonate on densification of the plant material with different moisture content was examined. Tests were carried out in order to select the best densification parameters, which turned out to be: mass portion 0.1 g, head heating temperature 140°C, the thickness of the die 60 mm. To determine the pellets quality the compressive strength analysis was conducted. Pellets were tested on the universal testing machine. It was found that the optimum strength was characterized pellets from Miscanthus and Jerusalem artichoke biomass with addition of 6–12% of calcium carbonate and respectively, 10–22% and 18–28% of plant material moisture. In the range of 10–30% of Spartina pectinata moisture content, the addition of calcium carbonate did not influence on the strength parameters of the pellets. Pellets made of Miscanthus material were the most durable. It was also stated that the amount of calcium carbonate depends on the specific physico-chemical characteristics of biomass.
1. Dąbrowska-Salwin M., Raczkowska D., Świętochowski A. (2017) Physical properties of wastes from furniture industry for energy purposes. Agronomy Research 15(2), 388–394.
2. Lisowski A., Buliński J., Gach S., Klonowski J., Sypuła M., Chlebowski J., Kostyra K., Nowakowski T., Strużyk A., Świętochowski A., Dąbrowska-Salwin M., Stasiak P. (2017) Biomass harvested at two energy plant growth phases for biogas production. Industrial crops and products, 105, 10-23, DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.04.058.
3. Lisowski A., Kostrubiec M., Dąbrowska-Salwin M., Świętochowski A. (2017) The characteristics of shredded straw and hay biomass. Part 1: whole mixture. Waste and Biomass Valorization, DOI: 10.1007/s12649-017-9835-y.
4. Lisowski A., Kostrubiec M., Dąbrowska-Salwin M., Świętochowski A. (2016) The characteristics of shredded straw and hay biomass. Part 2: the finest particles. Waste and biomass valorization, DOI: 10.1007/s12649-016-9747-2.
5. Dąbrowska-Salwin M., Lisowski A., Kostrubiec M., Świętochowski A. (2016) Pressure agglomeration of biomass with addition of the calcium carbonate. Proceedings of International scientific conference Engineering for rural development, 542-546.
Lunch Break 13:30-14:15 @ RBG
Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines), India
Title: Characterization and application of biomass used in metallurgical sintering operation as a fuel replacement
Time : 14:15-14:45
Shatrughan Soren is Assistant Professor in Department of Fuel and Mineral Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad, India, working in the field of biomass applications in metallurgical sintering operations. He has keen interest in Iron Ore sintering and pelletization process, so he is trying to synchronize an energy required process with biomass to modify the conventional method. His recently published article (Jha and Soren, 2017) is a detailed review about the work done so far in the field of biomass applications.
The The present paper highlights important aspects of sintering process for iron ores, which has been gaining considerable attention over the years. Increasing requirement of steel, depleting sources of iron ore, compositional variations, such as, decreasing Fe content, increased alumina, silica LOI and goethetic content as well as excessive generation of fines are some of the major factors behind growing use of the sintering process. Moreover, with environment policies becoming more stringent all over the world, there is an emphasis on containment of excessive generation of NOx, SOx and COx gases. Biomass has certain characteristics which makes it a potential alternate and that are, lesser sulphur and ash content, availability in plenty, lower generation time, uniform ignition but for smaller time period, lesser emissive constituents and carbon neutrality. According to literature, a metallurgical sintering operation can optimally replace 20% of coke breeze by biomass without effecting the quality of the product. The objective of the present work is to characterize biomass to find out its suitability and replacement ability in metallurgical sintering operations. Various analytical methods such as macro thermos-gravimetric analysis and micro TG-DTA, FESEM-EDX, FTIR is used to interpret the characteristics which makes it suitable for replacement.
1. Jha, G., and Soren, S. 2017. Study on applicability of biomass in iron ore sintering, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol 80: 399-407
2. Demirbas, T., and Demirbas, A. H. 2010. Bioenergy, Green Energy. Biomass and Biofuels. Energy Sources Part A. Vol 32:1067-1075.
3. Vassilev S. V., Vassilev C. G., Vassilev V. S. 2015. Advantages and disadvantages of composition and properties of biomass in comparison with coal: An overview. Fuel 158:330–350.
4. Zandi M, Paheco MM, Fray TAT. Biomass for iron ore sintering. Miner Eng., 2010; 23:1139–45.
5. Abreu G. C., de Carvalho J. A., Jr, da Silva B.E.C., Pedrini R.H. Operational and environmental assessment on the use of charcoal in iron ore sinter production. J. Clean Prod 2015; 101: 387–94.
University of Fort Hare, South Africa
Title: Performance evaluation of a custom built waste heat recovery unit attached to a gasification plant
Time : 14:45-15:15
Nwabunwanne Nwokolo research interests focus on biomass gasification and renewable energy in the institute Fort Hare Institute of Technology.
Johansson biomass gasification system is a standalone power generation system as it utilizes the syngas produced from the downdraft gasifier in an internal combustion gas engine for power generation. The syngas exiting the gasifier and entering the cyclone dissipates heat on the body of the cyclone due to the high temperature at which it exit. In addition this same syngas undergoes some cooling process at the gas scrubber before reaching the gas engine. As the gas engine drives the synchronous generator for power generation, some of the un-combusted gases exit through the exhaust pipe at high temperatures. All these add-up as waste heat within the gasification system, hence there is a significant opportunity for waste heat recovery in Johansson biomass gasification system. Therefore the aim of this study is to design and construct a waste heat recovery unit (WHRU) so as to harness the heat dissipated on the body of the cyclone for water heating. The design of the WHRU was made using an inventor based on the specifications of the cyclone dust collector. The WHRU was constructed using H R sheet commercial quality of dimensions 3 x 2,500 x 1,225 mm and angle equal commercial quality of dimension 30 x 30 x 2.5 mm. The performance evaluation of the WHRU was conducted at difference conditions and discussed. Result showed that the temperature of water in the WHRU could be raised from 20 °C to 78 °C without water withdrawal. Furthermore a maximum outlet water temperature of 65 °C was recorded with water withdrawal at a rate of 1litre/min or 0.02 kg/sec. More also the standing loss realized at this maximum temperature was approximately 2.11 kW/h. A maximum temperature of about 130 °C was recorded at the engine exhaust pipe which represents a significant opportunity for heat recovery with a thermoelectric generator.
Networking and Refreshments Break 15:15-15:35 @ Breakout Areas
Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Pakistan
Time : 15:35-16:00
Amin Ullah Jan works in the Department of Biotechnology as Faculty of Sciences in the Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University
Potassium and zinc are essential elements in plant growth and metabolism and plays a vital role in salt stress tolerance. To investigate the physiological mechanism of salt stress tolerance, a pot experiment was conducted. Potassium and zinc significantly minimize the oxidative stress and increase root, shoot and spike length in wheat varieties. Fresh and dry biomass were significantly increased by potassium followed by zinc as compared to control C. The photosynthetic pigment and osmolyte regulator (proline, total phenolic, and total carbohydrate) were significantly enhanced by potassium and zinc. Salt stress increase MDA content in wheat varieties while potassium and zinc counteract the adverse effect of salinity and significantly increased membrane stability index. Salt stress decrease the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) while the exogenous application of potassium and zinc significantly enhanced the activities of these enzyme. Significant positive correlation was found of spike length with proline (R2 = 0.966 ***), phenolic (R2 = 0.741*) and chlorophyll (R2 = 0.853**). The MDA content showed significant negative correlation (R2 = 0.983***) with MSI. It is concluded that potassium and zinc reduced toxic effect of salinity while its combine application showed synergetic effect and significantly enhanced salt tolerance.
University of Sheffield, UK
Title: Solving the ammonia –carbon dioxide cycle – sustainable biomass utilization linked to a circular economy approach
Time : 16:00-16:30
Pratik Desai is a 1st Class-Honours Chemical engineer (MEng in Chemical engineering with Fuel Technology) and PhD in Chemical Engineering at the University of Sheffield. He is the R&I Director at Perlemax and has extensive experience in microbubble generation, visualisation, fluid dynamics, interfacial dynamics and phenomena, non-equilibrium thermodynamics, fluidic and reaction catalysis. He is co-inventor of the Desai-Zimmerman Fluidic Oscillator, the Microbubble Mediated Ammonia Recovery process- 'Waste Factory', self-actuated wastewater aeration product (TOAD), nanobubble generation and associated applications in several sectors including biomedical and medical applications. He is the inventor of an energy- efficient micro/nanodroplet generation.He has led and developed several projects for aquaculture, aquaponics, hydroponics, novel contacting systems, bioreactors, chemical reactors with regenerating interfaces. Projects he is leading include bagged microbial reactors & fermenters, anaerobic digestion, biodiesel generation and worked on CO2 capture and utilisation using MEA and Ionic Liquids and desorb them using a novel microbubble unit operation (Desai-Zimmerman contactor).
Microbubbles are bubbles sized between 1µm and 1000µm and offer tremendous advantages with respect to transport phenomena due to their high surface area to volume ratio . Accelerated biogas production rate via periodic CO2 microbubble injection was demonstrated with over 100%-120% increase in the rate of biogas yield for an untreated wet food waste in an anaerobic digestion process . Recently, Desai et al [3, 4] demonstrated a new unit operation –microbubble stripping – in order to separate ammonia from an ammonia rich wastewater stream 300 times faster than an industrial stripping column with a mass transfer coefficient 3000-15000 times faster than a stripper. [5,6]The removal rate was as high as nearly 100% from the wastewater. This process, when combined with the accelerated biogas production introduces the third novelty of generating precipitated salts of ammonium carbamate and ammonium carbonate by reacting the CO2 and NH3 in water which can be selectively tuned - another feature not observed in literature - and is performed at room temperature and pressure. This reaction is exothermic and using heat from the exothermicity of this process to conserve the heat for the anaerobic digester is part of process integration. The theory proposed for the increase in biogas production rate is that the CO2 bubbles provide a pH shock to the system. The biogas generated from the anaerobic digestion is then sweetened from the sustainably sourced ammonia from ammonia rich waste water (which reduces liabilities for liquids like centrate and leachate for waste management companies or increase capital efficiencies for digestate by reducing ammonia inhibition and increasing solids loading). This results in enhanced methane as a product from the digester, which coupled with a smaller CAPEX from the increased biogas yield rate and reduced OPEX due to the heat conservation reduces digester payback from 8y to 2y.
 Brittle, S.; Desai, P.; Ng, W. C.; Dunbar, A.; Howell, R.; Tesař, V.; Zimmerman, W. B. Minimising microbubble size through oscillation frequency control. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 104, 357-
 Al-mashhadani, M. K. H.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Zimmerman, W. B. Carbon dioxide rich microbubble acceleration of biogas production in anaerobic digestion. Chemical Engineering Science 2016, 156, 24-35.
 Desai,P., Turley,M., Robinson R., Zimmerman, W.B., Ammonia removal from wastewaters by hot microbubble injection in thin liquid layers, [ in prep, will be submitted in time for conference]
 Desai, P. D., Zimmerman, W.B. Hot microbubble injection in thin liquid layers for ammonia-water separations. In The 68th Annual Meeting of the American Physical Society - Division of Fluid Dynamics, Jose Gordillo, U. d. S., Ed.; APS: MIT, Boston, Massachusetts USA, 2015; Vol. 60.
 Kamaruddin, M. A.; Yusoff, M. S.; Aziz, H. A.; Hung, Y.-T. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate. Applied Water Science 2014, 5 (2), 113-126.
 B, S.; Beebi. Sk, K. Bioremediation of Ammonia from Polluted Waste Waters- A Review. American Journal of Microbiological Research 2014, 2 (6), 201-210.
Dublin City university, Republic of Ireland
Title: Integration approach of anaerobic digestion and fermentation process towards producing bio-gas and bio-ethanol with zero waste: technical
Time : 16:30-16:55
Raid Mohammed A. Alrefai is an PhD researcher in Dublin city university DCU. My research interest is to investigate the integration approach of anaerobic digestion with another biomass conversion process in order to solve the environmental and economical issues associated with anaerobic digestion when it is applied at large scale. The integration approach has recently taken its shape but more investigations on it are still required.
The rapid increase in the world population has caused an enormous increase in the demand of energy. Growing demand has resulted in a shortfall in conventional energy resources. Due to that and because of the major negative impacts of fossil fuel on the environment and other aspects as well, the necessity toward finding alternative cheap, renewable, and environmentally friendly energy resources has significantly arose. Biomass as an energy resource has a potential to be a good alternative for non-renewable energy resources. Anaerobic digestion process is one of the most commonly biological conversion process used in converting biomass into biofuels. It has been extensively applied in many studies for converting several types of feedstocks and has proved it's significant effectiveness. (AD) digestates are generally composed of solid and liquid streams. Those streams are rich in nutrients and contain undigested materials which have not been digested in the digestion process. Despite the significant effectiveness, it would contribute in major issues if it has been applied at large scale, as the amount of digestates which would be generated are quite high. Due to that and to take an advantage of the digestates in the production of biofuel and bioproducts as well, the interests in enhancing and utilizing anaerobic digestion residues have recently much increased. Bioethanol is one of the most promising liquid biofuel. It is eco-friendly alternative to fossil fuels. In recent years, number of studies have investigated the integration approach of producing biogas and bioproduct in which would result in zero waste. However, this paper discusses mainly an integration approach for producing two promising renewable energies can be utilized in many applications with no waste generated. This approach is still at an early stage and require further studies to improve the properties of the biofuels and high-value bio-based products produced.